Ibn Khaldun on Human Evolution

During last week’s debate on BBC1’s Big Questions I mentioned to a Muslim Imam (Abdullah Hasan) that Muslim thinkers in previous centuries were far more open to the idea of evolution (including human evolution) than today’s more literalist interpreters of the Qur’an. I specifically mentioned the great 14th century Tunisian jurist Ibn Khaldun who in his Muqaddimah wrote as follows:

It should be known that we – May God guide you and us – notice that this world with all the created things in it has a certain order and solid construction. It shows nexuses between causes and things caused, combinations of some parts of creation with others, and transformations of some existent things into others, in a pattern that is both remarkable and endless.


One should then look at the world of creation. It started out from the minerals and progressed, in an ingenious, gradual manner, to plants and animals. The last stage of minerals is connected with the first stage of plants, such as herbs and seedless plants. The last stage of plants, such as palms and vines, is connected with the first stage of animals, such as snails and shellfish which have only the power of touch. The word “connection” with regard to these created things means that the last stage of each group is fully prepared to become the first stage of the next group.

The animal world then widens, its species become numerous, and, in a gradual process of creation, it finally leads to man, who is able to think and to reflect. The higher stage of man is reached from the world of the monkeys, in which both sagacity and perception are found, but which has not reached the stage of actual reflection and thinking. At this point we come to the first stage of man after (the world of monkeys). This is as far as our (physical) observation extends.

Now, in the various worlds we find manifold influences. In the world of sensual perception there are certain influences of the motions of the spheres and the elements. In the world of creation there are certain influences of the motions of growth and perception. All this is evidence of the fact that there is something that exercises an influence and is different from the bodily substances. This is something spiritual. It is connected with the created things, because the various worlds must be connected in their existence. This spiritual thing is the soul, which has perception and causes motion.

Above the soul there must exist something else that gives the soul the power of perception and motion, and that is also connected with it. Its essence should be pure perception and absolute intellection. This is the world of the angels. The soul, consequently, must be prepared to exchange humanity for angelicality, in order actually to become part of the angelic species at certain times in the flash of a moment. This happens after the spiritual essence of the soul has become perfect in actuality, as we shall mention later on.

Just amazing, isn’t it? Ibn Khaldun was writing (the full online version can be read here) five hundred years before Charles Darwin. We can only lament that we no longer have many Muslim scholars with the vision and intelligence of Ibn Khaldun.

On the more positive side, it is hard to see how Muslim understanding and appreciation of science and evolution could get any worse so surely things can only get better. One hopes!

See also:

My debate on evolution with Harun Yahya

BBC Big Questions Debate “Is it time for religions to accept evolution?”

BBC website debate on evolution with Christian Creationist